Oracle is a relational database. In a relational database, all data is stored in two-dimensional tables that are composed of rows and columns. The Oracle Database enables you to store data, update it, and efficiently retrieve it.
Oracle provides software to create and manage the Oracle database. The database consists of physical and logical structures in which system, user, and control information is stored. The software that manages the database is called the Oracle database server. Collectively, the software that runs oracle and the physical database are called the Oracle database system.
Some of Oracle's tools to access the database and create programs are:
SQL*Plus has a command line interface. With it, you can access the database and write stored procedures, you can run SQL commands to retrieve data and you can run scripts of either SQL, PL/SQL or built-in SQL*Plus commands, or a mixture of those three things.
Oracle Developer is a 4GL GUI application Builder. With Developer, you can create forms, reports, and graphics. Oracle*Forms and Oracle*Reports are two components of Oracle Developer. Earlier versions created client-server applications, but the more recent versions create web applications that run under the Oracle Application Server (OAS). OAS is a web-based application server sold by Oracle. OAS is licensed separately and is very expensive (as are its closed source competitors). The current version is OAS 10g.
HTML DB is a fairly new application builder geared toward web development (added to the DB with release 9iR2). HTML DB does not need an application server. This tool runs from the database and can be presented to the web using the Apache web server that comes with the database. Since this is not an additional license, it provides a cheaper way to develop applications. Developer is a feature-rich thick client with all of the normal GUI widgets. HTML DB is HTML-based and is very thin and limited to the HTML provided widgets.
Oracle Enterprise Manager (OEM) is the Enterprise GUI tool to manage the database. From this tool, you can perform any action in the database that is required. This tool is primarily used for administration but can also be provided to developers for application tuning and monitoring. In Oracle 10g, OEM also provides Grid control.
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Source : Oracle Documentation
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